BPH 101

CONTENTS

What is BPH?

Who can get it?

Statistic

Causes

Types

Symptoms

Treatment

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What is BPH?

What is Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)?

What is Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)?

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an overgrowth of prostate tissue. Excess tissue can slowly squeeze the urethra and bladder, blocking normal urine flow, making urination difficult and even painful. BPH is a common cause of lower urinary symptoms, or LUTS.

Who can get it?

Who can get BPH?

Who can get BPH?

Men with the following factors are more likely to be diagnosed with BPH:

  • Aged 40 and older
  • Family history of BPH
  • Other medical conditions i.e., cardiovascular disease, obesity
  • Lack of exercise
  • Some men with erectile dysfunction

Statistic

Did you know?

BPH is one of the most common chronic urological disease of men worldwide

30 million men worldwide have symptoms related to BPH

By age 80, 90% of the male population will have BPH and 50% will have LUTS

Causes

What causes BPH?

What causes BPH?

The causes for BPH are not well understood but changes in hormone levels are thought to play a role. One theory is that the imbalance and overproduction of dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a male hormone, leads to BPH, LUTS, and an enlarged prostate. In the body, the male hormone testosterone is naturally changed to DHT. DHT is responsible for normal growth and development of the prostate in adolescents but can contribute to BPH in older men.

Types

What are the Types of BPH?

What are the Types of BPH?

The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) can be utilized to measure the severity of lower urinary tract symptoms and severity of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

BPH can be categorized into mild, moderate, and severe.

  • A score of 7 or less indicates mild BPH
  • A score of 8 to 19 indicates moderate BPH
  • A score of 20 to 35 indicates severe BPH

Symptoms

What are the symptoms of BPH?

What are the symptoms of BPH?

When the prostate is enlarged, it can bother or block the bladder. Needing to pass urine often is a common symptom of BPH. This might be every 1 to 2 hours, mainly at night. Depending on how BPH affects the urinary tract, different symptoms can be grouped into two categories.

PROBLEMS PASSING URINE

  • Hesitancy: taking a while to get started
  • Intermittency: inconsistent flow, starts and stops
  • Weak stream: weak flow of urine
  • Urinary retention: inability to fully void the bladder
PROBLEMS WITH URINE STORAGE IN THE BLADDER
  • Frequency: the need to urinate often during the day
  • Nocturia: the need to urinate 2 or more times at night
  • Urgency: a sudden, strong need to urinate immediately
  • Urge incontinence: leaking of urine after sudden strong urge to urinate
URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS

If BPH becomes severe, you might not be able to pass urine at all. This is an emergency that must be treated right away.

Treatment

Ways to treat BPH in your everyday routine

For most men, the prostate gland will continue to grow and may progress into BPH. However, leading a healthy lifestyle can help reduce the risk and growth of BPH:

Avoid medications that weaken bladder contractions

Eating a healthy diet with plenty of fruits and vegetables

Limit your intake of alcohol and caffeine

Reduce your intake of fluids, particularly after dinner

Exercising at least 30 mins of everyday

References

Edwards, J. L. (2008, May 15). Diagnosis and management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. American Family Physician. Retrieved November 7, 2022, from https://www.aafp.org/pubs/afp/issues/2008/0515/p1403.html

See Details

Launer, B. M., McVary, K. T., Ricke, W. A., & Lloyd, G. L. (2020). The rising worldwide impact of benign prostatic hyperplasia. BJU International, 127(6), 722–728. https://doi.org/10.1111/bju.15286

See Details

Lim, K. B. (2017). Epidemiology of clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia. Asian Journal of Urology, 4(3), 14–8141.

See Details

McVary, K. T. (2022, August 8). Patient education: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) (Beyond the Basics). UpToDate. Retrieved November 7, 2022, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-bph-beyond-the-basics

See Details

Urology Care Foundation. (n.d.) Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH).

See Details

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